Sejarah/Dekolonialisasi Indonesia dan Vietnam
Bab ini membahas analisis mengenai penelitian Pham Van Thuy (Vietnam National University) yang berjudul "Same Fate, Different Choices : Decolonization in Vietnam and Indonesia, 1945 - 1960s". Penelitian ini terbit pada jurnal Lembaran Sejarah, Volume 13, No 1, April 2007, halaman 72 - 90.
Penelitian ini membahas mengenai perbandingan perjuangan pasca kemerdekaan antara Indonesia (melawan Belanda) dengan Vietnam (melawan Prancis). Bab ini akan dibagi menjadi dua bagian. Bagian pertama, ringkasan dan analisis penelitian secara keseluruhan. Bagian kedua, ringkasan hasil kutipan langsung dari jurnal dalam bahasa aslinya (bahasa Inggris).
Ringkasan dan Analisis[sunting]
Indonesia memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya pada 17 Agustus 1945. Sementara itu, Vietnam memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya pada 2 September 1945. Tak lama setelah proklamasi kemerdekaan, Indonesia dan Vietnam didatangi oleh pasukan sekutu yang baru saja berhasil mengalahkan Jepang. Pasukan Inggris mendatangi Indonesia dan Vietnam Selatan untuk melucuti senjata milik tentara Jepang dan membebaskan tawanan-tawanan Sekutu. Belanda datang kembali ke Indonesia dengan menumpang pasukan Inggris. Prancis juga datang kembali ke Vietnam, juga dengan menumpang pasukan Inggris. Sementara itu, pasukan Sekutu juga mengutus pasukan Kuomintang dari China untuk mendatangi Vietnam Utara, membantu tugas Inggris di sana.
Pada 6 Maret 1946, Prancis dan Vietnam menandatangani kesepakatan 6 maret. Prancis mengakui kemerdekaan Republik Demokratik Vietnam, sebagai bagian dari Federasi Indocina dalam pemerintahan Prancis. Vietnam menyetujui penarikan pasukan Kuomintang di Vietnam Utara, yang akan digantikan dengan pasukan Prancis. Penempatan pasukan Prancis di Vietnam akan dikurangi secara bertahap dalam waktu lima tahun, dan akan digantikan oleh pasukan Vietnam.
Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda, H. J. Van Mook memutuskan untuk mencontoh perjanjian 6 Maret Prancis - Vietnam dan mengajukannya ke Indonesia. Pada 25 Maret 1946, Van Mook mengusulkan empat butir perjanjian kepada pemerintah Republik.
- Pemerintah Belanda mengakui kedaulatan Republik Indonesia sebagai penguasa de facto di Jawa, dengan pengecualian di wilayah-wilayah yang dikuasai pasukan Sekutu. Republik Indonesia akan bekerjasama dengan Pemerintah Belanda untuk membentuk Pemerintahan Indonesia yang berbasis Federasi
- Republik Indonesia menyetujui pendaratan pasukan Belanda di Indonesia
- Gencatan senjata antara Indonesia dan Belanda
- Pemerintah Belanda akan meminta pendapat pimpinan Republik dan pimpinan daerah yang berada di luar kekuasaan pemerintah Republik mengenai struktur pemerintahan Indonesia yang baru, juga mengenai hubungannya terhadap Kerajaan Belanda
Setelah itu, perjanjian Linggarjati ditandatangani. Belanda mengakui kedaulatan Republik sebagai penguasa de facto di Jawa dan Sumatra. Belanda dan Republik bekerjasama untuk membentuk Republik Indonesia Serikat yang berbasis federasi. Republik Indonesia Serikat terdiri atas tiga negara bagian : Republik Indonesia, Borneo , dan Indonesia Timur. Wilayah-wilayah yang tidak mau bergabung dengan RIS dapat memutuskan sendiri bagaimana hubungannya terhadap RIS dan Belanda. Belanda dan Republik Indonesia bekerjasama untuk membentuk Uni Indonesia - Belanda yang membahas mengenai masalah hubungan luar negeri, pertahanan, dan kebijakan ekonomi-finansial. Republik Indonesia akan mengakui hak-hak dan harta benda warga asing yang berada dalam teritorial wilayah Republik Indonesia.
Kedua perjanjian ini memiliki kemiripan. Belanda/Prancis sama-sama mengakui kemerdekaan Indonesia/Vietnam secara terbatas, namun mengikatkan pemerintah baru itu ke dalam federasi yang dikontrol oleh Belanda/Prancis. Untuk sementara, gencatan senjata dilakukan, namun Indonesia/Vietnam harus menyetujui pendaratan pasukan Belanda/Prancis baru di dalam teritorialnya. Kedua perjanjian ini (6 Maret dan Linggarjati) sama-sama dilanggar oleh aksi militer yang dilakukan Prancis dan Belanda. Belanda melancarkan "Operatie Product". Semantara itu, Prancis melancarkan "Perang Indocina Pertama". Kemiripan perjuangan revolusi Indonesia dengan Vietnam berakhir sampai disini. Pada pembahasan selanjutnya, kronologi kejadian diceritakan secara terpisah.
Di Indonesia, Belanda berhasil mencapai tujuannya dalam "Operatie Product". Namun, tindakan Belanda mendapat pertentangan dari Inggris dan Amerika Serikat. Oleh sebab itu, Belanda terpaksa menandatangani gencatan senjata dalam perjanjian Renville. Dalam perjanjian ini, Belanda berhasil merebut wilayah Jawa Barat dari Indonesia.
Karena kesuksesannya dalam "Operatie Product", Belanda cukup percaya diri dengan kekuatan militernya dan melancarkan satu serangan terakhir untuk benar-benar menghancurkan Indonesia. Belanda melancarkan "Operatie Kraai" untuk merebut seluruh wilayah yang dikuasai Republik Indonesia. Operasi ini berhasil, petinggi-petinggi Republik seperti Presiden Sukarno, Wakil Presiden Hatta dan Perdana Menteri Syahrir tertawan dan diasingkan ke Bangka.
Sekali lagi, Amerika Serikat sangat mengecam tindakan Belanda dalam "Operatie Kraai", karena tindakan itu jelas jelas melanggar kesepakatan pada perjanjian Renvile -- pada waktu itu perjanjian Renville dimediasi oleh Amerika Serikat sendiri --. Menggunakan tekanan ekonomi (bantuan Marshall Plan), Belanda akhirnya memutuskan untuk mengadakan perundingan kembali dengan Republik Indonesia dalam Konferensi Meja Bundar. Pada KMB, Belanda akhirnya mengakui kedaulatan Indonesia. Wilayah-wilayah Hindia Belanda sebelumnya (kecuali Irian Barat) diserahkan kepada Indonesia. Masalah Irian Barat akan dibicarakan selanjutnya kemudian.
Sebagai bayarannya, Belanda diizinkan untuk tetap melakukan bisnisnya di Indonesia seperti biasa. Indonesia wajib berkonsultasi kepada Belanda jika Pemerintah Indonesia mengeluarkan kebijakan finansial dan moneter yang dapat berdampak pada bisnis-bisnis Belanda di Indonesia. Nasionalisasi perusahaan Belanda diperbolehkan hanya dengan kesepakatan Belanda dan Indonesia, dengan biaya kompensasi yang ditentukan kemudian. Indonesia juga harus membayar hutang-hutang Belanda sebesar $1.1 milyar. Selama hutang-hutang itu belum terbayar, Pemerintah Belanda berhak mengatur kebijakan ekonomi Indonesia. Sejak saat itu, perjuangan kemerdekaan Indonesia secara ekonomi dilakukan secara bertahap. Puncaknya, pada bulan desember 1957, banyak perusahaan-perusahaan Belanda di Indonesia yang diambil alih oleh serikat pekerja. Nasionalisasi perusahaan Belanda akhirnya resmi diberlakukan pada tahun 1959. Irian Barat pun akhirnya diserahkan kepada Indonesia pada Oktober 1962.
Sementara itu di Vietnam, Prancis menyerang Hanoi, memicu Perang Indochina Pertama. Prancis mendirikan pemerintahan baru di Vietnam, dengan menunjuk raja Vietnam sebelumnya, Bao Dai, sebagai pemimpin. Ketika pasukan komunis berhasil menguasai China pada 1949, Vietminh mendapat dukungan langsung dari komunis China di perbatasan Vietnam - China. Bantuan bantuan dari Uni Soviet dan Blok Timur mulai mengalir ke Vietnam. Sementara itu, Amerika Serikat memutuskan untuk melawan Blok Timur dengan mendukung pasukan Prancis dalam peperangan di Indochina. Prancis akhirnya berhasil menghalangi bantuan China kepada Vietminh dengan melakukan blokade.
Pada 1950, Vietminh berhasil menembus Dien Bien Phublokade Prancis di perbatasan Vietnam - China. Sejak saat itu, Vietminh beralih dari bertahan ke menyerang. Pada 1950 - 1952, Vietminh melancarkan beberapa operasi penyerangan ke wilayah-wilayah yang dikuasai Prancis. Puncaknya terjadi pada Pertempuran Dien Bien Phu yang dimulai pada 13 Maret 1954. Pada saat itu, kondisi Prancis sudah mulai terdesak akibat datangnya angin muson yang mengakibatkan sulitnya pengiriman bantuan dan pasokan dari udara. Pada akhirnya, pada pagi hari, 7 May 1954, Vietminh memenangkan pertempuran ini, mengakhiri Perang Indochina Pertama.
Pada 21 Juli 1954, Prancis menandatangani Perjanjian Geneva. Vietnam dibagi Vietnam Utara dan Vietnam Selatan. Pasukan Prancis akan menempati Vietnam Selatan, sedangkan Vietminh akan menempati Vietnam Utara. Konflik ini akan berlanjut pada Perang Indochina Kedua antara Vietminh melawan Bao Dai dan penerusnya yang didukung oleh Amerika Serikat. Vietnam akhirnya berhasil dipersatukan pada tahun 1976.
The Republic of Indonesia was declared by Sukarno on 17 August, while in Vietnam, on 2 September, Ho Chi Minh read the Declaration of Independence, proclaiming the birth of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
Shortly after the capitulation of Japan, British troops landed in southern Vietnam and then Indonesia as a contingent of Allied forces to disarm the Japanese and reptariate Allied internees and prisoners-of-war. Under the assistance of British forces, the Dutch and the French also landed troops in Indonesia and Vietnam for the purpose of restoring colonial rule. Meanwhile, as decided among Allied Forces, on 14 August 1945, the Chinese Kuomintang army entered North Vietnam with a task to supervise the repatriation of the Japanese Army.
Perundingan dan Peperangan[sunting]
Aware of heavy losses that would inevitable arise if their countries immediately precipitated a war of resistance, the Vietnamese and Indonesian leaders attempted to save their fledgling independence by diplomatic negotiations. In 1946, Vietnam constantly signed with France the 6 March Accords and the 14 September Modus Vivendi. In Indonesia, a truce agreement with the Dutch was also initialled at Linggarjati on 15 November 1946. These agreement were widely considered a serious infringement on the two countries' independence proclamation of 1945.
On 19 December 1946, President Ho Chi Minh called upon the Vietnamese for a war of resistance against the French colonialists. After eight years of warfare, on 21 July 1954, the Geneva Agreement was signed. The French agreed to withdraw from Indochina.
Betwen 1947 and 1949, the Dutch launched two major military offensives. These actions resulted in the Renville Agreement (17 January 1948) and the Round Table Conference (2 November 1949). Although the Netherlands agreed the transfer of sovereignty to the United States of Indonesia, the newly independent government had to shoulder a substantial war debt (4.6 billion guilders) in addition to the obligation of guaranteeing the continuing operation of Dutch enterprises. Later, in 1950s, most of the Dutch firms were taken over by the Indonesian miltary and labour unions.
The Indonesian revolution can be divided into two episodes, political decolonialization (1945 - 1949) and economic decolonization (1950 - 1960). Meanwhile, in Vietnam, French entrepreneurs began to transfer their capital out of Indochina since the late 1940s before the military withdrawal, which took place after the fall of Dien Bien Phu in 1954.
6 March Accord[sunting]
In the 6 March Accord, it was agreed that France recognized the Democratic Republic of Vietnam as a free state, having its own government, parliament, army, and finances and forming part of the Indochinese Federation in the French Union. The Vietnamese government agreed to the landing of 15.000 French troops in northern Vietnam to replace the Chinese Kuomintang army. The Kuomintang signed with the French a treaty by which the Kuomintang forces ceded the rights to occupy North Vietnam to French forces. In return, the French gave up certain rights in China to the Kuomintang. These troops were scheduled to be gradually reduced over a five-year period and replaced by Vietnamese Army.
Soon after the French - Vietnamese Accord of 6 March 1946, the Dutch Lieutenant Governor General, H.J. van Mook, decided to use this Accord as a model by which the Netherlands and the Republic could reach an agreement. On 25 March 1946, Van Mook submitted to the Republican government four articles based on the 6 March Accords. The four articles are :
- With the exception of the territories held by the Allied Military Administration, the Dutch government would recognize the Republic as exercising de facto authority in Java. The Republic would cooperate with the Dutch government in the creation of an Indonesian federative Free State.
- The Republic would agree to landing of Dutch troops to implement Allied tasks
- Both parties would agree to cease hostilities
- The Dutch government would consult with the Republic and representatives of the areas outside Republican control on the political structure of the future Indonesian state and its relations with the Netherlands Kingdom
Later, according to the Linggarjati Agreement (15 November 1946), the Dutch government recognized the Republic as the de facto authority in Java and Sumatra. The Dutch and Republican governments cooperated toward the establishment of a sovereign democratic federal state called the United States of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia Serikat - RIS), which would consist of three states : the Republic, Borneo and the Great East. Territories not willing to join the RIS could decide -- by democratic process -- their own special relationship to the RIS and to the Netherlands. The Dutch and Republican government cooperated toward the formation of the Netherlands - Indonesia Union, which would set up its own agencies for the regulation of matters of common interests to the member states (especially the matters of foreign affairs, defences, financial and economic policies). The Republic would recognize all claims by foreign nationals for restitution honouring their rights and properties within areas controlled by the Republic. Any dispute arising from the Agreement would be settled by arbitration.
Both the 6 March Accord and the Linggarjati Agreement were soon broken because of military actions by French and Dutch forces. French attempted to break the 6 March Accord, while Van Mook sought for the means to enforce the terms of the Linggarjati Agreement.
Following the failure in the implementation of the Linggarjati Agreement due to the resistance by the Indonesians, the Dutch forces launched the so caled "First Police Action" (Operatie Product) against the Republican territory at midnight on 20 July 1947. From Jakarta and Bandung, two divisions moved out to occupy most of West Java. Two other divisions were sent from Surabaya and Semarang to seize the control of East Java and made some encroachments on the Republican territory in Central Java. In Sumatra, units moved out from Medan to capture control of the surrounding plantation areas. The tactical aim of the First Police Action was two fold : to destroy the major body of the Republic's armed forces and to capture the export product which had been bottled up in the Republican held territories. It was so sudden and switft that most infrastructure and plantations were captured by Dutch forces without damage. The Republican government retreated to its capital Yogyakarta.
Britain and US made clear their disapproval of Dutch military actions in Indonesia. Therefore, on 4 August 1947, the Dutch government orderd a ceasefire. It led to the conclusion of Renville Agreement of 17 - 19 January 1948. This agreement confirmed a division of Java between Dutch and Republican forces along the so-called "Van Mook line". The Dutch took full control over West Java.
After the First Police Action of 1947, the Dutch gained more confidence in their strength and believing that the Republican forces could be overcome by a final knock-out blow. In the morning of 19 December 1948, the Dutch broke the ceasefire by launching the Second Police Action (Operatie Kraai) to seize all remaining Republican territory. Dutch parachute troops dropped near Yogyakarta and in the early morning, they captured the Republican capital. Within a few days, all major cities in Java were occupied. President Sukarno, Vice-President Mohammad Hatta and Prime Minister Syahrir were arrested and detained on the island of Bangka. Despite firece armed struggles in North Sumatra and South Sulawesi, the Dutch occupied most of the Outer Islands without much resistance. Militarily, the Dutch achieved all objectivities.
Again, the US strongly opposed to the Second Police Action as it obviously broke earlier treaties, which the US had helped negotiation. Under economic pressure from the US through Mashall Plan aid, the Dutch government passed a resolution in January 1949, demanding the resintatement of the Republican government.
Round Table Conference[sunting]
The Netherlands agreed to discontinue military operations and return Jogjakarta to the Republican government. Agreement for the transfer of sovereignty was finally concluded at the Round Table Conference held at The Hague in November 1949. The Netherlands recognized the sovereignty of the United States of Indonesia over the former Dutch colonies in the Netherlands East Indies, excluding the territory of West Irian. The question over the political status of New Guinea would be determined through negotiations within a year from the date of transfer of sovereignty.
The Financial-Economic Agreement (Finec) signed at the Round Table Conference guaranteed that Dutch firms could continue doing business in Indonesia as usual. There was also an obligation for the Indonesian government to consult with the Netherlands on any monetary and financial measures likely to have an impact on Dutch interests. Nationalization of Dutch enterprises required mutual agreement, whith compensation to be determined by a judge. Indonesia was also forced to take over $1.1 billion of debts of the Dutch colonial administration. As long as this debt was not fully paid off, the Dutch government had the right to interfere in Indonesian economic policy. At that time, the modern, large-scale sectors, constituting almost 25% of Indonesian GDP were still dominated by Dutch firms and some British/American multinationals.
In November 1945, the Indonesian government issued the Proclamation on Foreign Property, which stipulated that "all foreign property other than that which our State needs to operate itself will be returned to the rightful owners, and as fair compensation as possible will be paid for property taken over by the state". All vital enterprises, such as public utilities, the rail and tram network, postal and telecommunication servies, banks and mining companies should all become state enterprises.
In 1951, the Indonesian government implemented the Economic Urgency Program (or Sumitro Program) which put high priority on the development of industrialization. Small scale industries such as rubber remilling, cotton spinning, cement, caustic soda and coconut flour were strongly encouraged. Foreign capital was allowed to invest in these industries under the government supervision. Then, "Program Benteng", which aimed to build up an indigenous Indonesian business class. The program reserved cetain categories of goods for indigenous Indonesian importers, who were provided with trade credits through the state-owned Bank Negara Indonesia. The rationale was to cut Dutch trading houses out of the lucrative import trade.
When tensions over the West Irian accelerated in 1956, the government unilaterally abrogated the Round Table agreement. In December 1957, a large number of Dutch companies were taken over by the labour unions. Formal nationalization was implemented in 1959. Later, Sukarno introduced his Guided Democracy and Guided Economy. The president would appoint and lead a consensus cabinet, resulted in the demise of parliamentary democracy. Guided Economy ushered in a period of increasing hostility towards both domestic private capital and remaining foreign capital. The state-owned basic industries were stimulated and private enterprises were to be supervised through industry associations. The military actively participated in the management of Dutch enterprises and the operation of national economy.
West Irian remained a dispute between the Netherlands and Indonesia throughout the 1950s until it was finally surrendered to Indonesia in October 1962.
However, in September 1946, when Ho Chi Minh was in Paris, he made concessions by signing the Modus Vivendi. It recognized the rights of the French to do business in Vietnam on the same level with all the Vietnamese. The Vietnamese government also agreed to the principles of a common currency and taxation over the whole Indochina. These concessions were necessary, because they would help bring a ceasefire.
First Indochina War[sunting]
The military conflict in Vietnam was ignited on 20 November 1946 over the French occupation of Hai Phong and Lang Son. Tensions accelerated in December when French troops brought about bombing in and around the capital of Hanoi. Ultimatum was also sent to the Vietminh demanding for the handing over the administration of Hanoi to French forces. This is known as the start of the First Indochina War. Ho Chi Minh and the revolutionary government apparatus retreated from Hanoi to Viet Bac base.
The first large-scale military offensive of the French against the Vietminh was organized in 1947. The major objective of the offensive was to close the northern border of Vietnam, seize the Vietminh leaders at their headquarters and destroy all their potentials of resistance. French's concept of the offensive, nicknamed Operation LEA, envisioned a combined airborne, amphibious and overland assault on the Vietminh governmental and military headquarters in Viet Bac. Operation LEA began on 7 October with parachute drop on the village of Bac Kan to capture President Ho Chi Minh and the Vietminh commander Vo Nguyen Giap. Two other pincers, consisting of three infantry battalions from Lang Son and an artillery battalion from Hanio, were moving to Viet Bac. The paratroopers were unable to find the Vietminh leaders. During the next days, they met with armed resistance of the Vietnamese soldiers and guerrillas and were encircled by Vietminh troops. The northern pincers was delayed by ambushes, blown bridges, fell trees and demolished roads. The southern pincers also encountered cannon fires.
Bourgoin submitted The Bourgoin Plan on Indochina's First Modernization Plan to the French government back then in January 1946. He emphasized that the modernization process should start in agriculture. He proposed building factories for the production of phosphates and nitrogenous fertilizers. Other chemical industries included sulphuric acid, soda, chlorine and glycerines. Heavy industries like iron, steel, and aluminium would also be developed. Two main energy projects were planned , based on coal and hydroelectric plant. The plan estimated that the total cost would be 3,198 million piasters. This sum was already beyond Indochina's means, but France was willing to underwrite some of the expenditure.
1948, the Vietminh government organized a meeting to discuss countermeasures against Bourgoin Plan. It was emphasized that sabotage actions against the economics of French rule were of particular importance to assist military struggles. The population should follow the policy of siege, vandalism and non-cooperation with the French thoroughly. The most popular slogan during this time was "Do not join the French army, do not pay tax to the French, do not sell provisions to the French, do not buy French goods." In large cities and towns, the sabotage aimed at the weapons producing factories, mining companies, food warehouses, post offices, bridges and railway. The Vietminh even organized a commitee in charge of destroying French plantations, with main objectives were the rubber plantations in the southern areas of Vietnam. The French businesses in Vietnam were badly damaged. French companies started shifting operations to ther French colonies or to France.
The Cold War[sunting]
At the time when the Dutch started withdrawing from Indonesia, France decided to escalate the war in Vietnam. The French installed a new government of the State of Vietnam under the former emperor Bao Dai. On the contrary, the Vietminh government received wide support from the population and continued to operate guerrilla war accross the country.
After the Chinese revolutionary forces suceeded in taking control over China in 1949, the Vietminh gained a political ally and supply area just across the border. In 1950, the Soviet Union and other countries in the socialist camp also recognized Ho Chi Minh as the legitimate ruler of Vietnam. The US decided to provide aid to French forces to continue the war in Indochina. French troops in Vietnam were incrased from 140.00 troops (1949) to 460.000 troops (1954). The mos skilled generals of the French Army, such as George Revers, De Lattre de Tassigny and Henri Navarre were also sent to Vietnam. They erected a corridor along Vietnam - China border to encircle the Vietminh and isolate them from China. Bao Dai was provided with more aid to develop his army. This is generally known by the French as the "total war" (guerre totale) and it caused much hardship for the Vietminh.
In order to break the siege, in September 1950, the Vietminh decided to launch the "Frontier Campaign" against the French garrisons along the Vietnam-China border. Within a month, the Vietminh took control over the northern border areas opening the border to the ally China. This campaign marked the Vietminh switch over from the defensive to the offensive. Between 1950 - 1952, the Vietminh organized a series of military actions against the French-held territories. The Dien Bien Phu Campaign began on 13 March 1954. The French position grew more untenable when the advent of the monsoon season made dropping supplies and reinforcement by parachute difficult. In the morning, 7 May, the Vietminh hoist their flag over Dien Bien Phu, effectively ending the First Indochina War.
On 21 July 1954, France signed the Geneva Agreement, which establised a cease fire and temporarily divided Vietnam with a demilitarized zone along the 17th parallel. French forces would withdraw into the South while the Vietminh regrouped in the North. An international commission would monitor the accords and supervise national elections to reunify the country in 1956. Yet such elections never took place because of the subversion by the Bao Dai and his successive governments, sponsored by the US. Vietnam only became unified in 1976 after two decades of warfare.
Before withdrawing to the south as stipulated by the Geneva Agreement, the French destroyed their factories, machines, weapons and supplies in North Vietnam
- Pham Van Thuy Same Fate, Different Choices : Decolonization in Vietnam and Indonesia, 1945 - 1960s Lembaran Sejarah Vol 13 No 1 April 2017 p 72- 90