Sejarah Sumatra (Marsden)/Bab 8

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Selain barang-barang dagang yang diatur menurut jenis sayuran, Sumatra menghasilkan banyak barang lainnya, utamanya adalah emas. Logam berharga tersebut banyak ditemukan di bagian tengan pulau tersebut; tak ada (atau dengan sedikit pengecualian) teramati pada bagian selatan Limun, anak Sungai Jambi, maupun bagian utara Nalabu, yang utamanya disediakan pada pelabuhan Achin. Menangkabau seringkali memperkirakan kedudukan terkaya darinya; dan penonjolan ini mungkin mempengaruhi Belanda untuk mendirikan pabrik utama mereka di Padang, di wilayah yang berdekatan dengan kerajaan tersebut. Koloni-koloni Me;ayu dari sana memukimkan diri mereka sendiri di nyaris seluruh distrik yang mengolah emas, dan nampaknya hanya orang-orang yang menggalinya dalam penambangan, atau mengumpulkannya di aliran-aliran sungai; para penduduk yang sebenarnya atau warga desa mengarahkan perhatian mereka pada peningkatan tujuan tersebut, dengan mereka suplai ke orang-orang yang mencari logam tersebut. Hal semacam itu setidaknya nampak pada kasus di Limun, Batang Asei, dan Pakalang jambu, tempat perdagangan emas dilakukan.

It has been generally understood at the English settlements that earth taken up from the beds of rivers, or loosened from the adjacent banks, and washed by means of rivulets diverted towards the newly-opened ground, furnishes the greater proportion of the gold found in the island, and that the natives are not accustomed to venture upon any excavation that deserves the name of mining; but our possession, during the present war, of the settlements that belonged to the Dutch, has enabled us to form juster notions on the subject, and the following account, obtained from well-informed persons on the spot, will show the methods pursued in both processes, and the degree of enterprise and skill employed by the workmen.

In the districts situated inland of Padang, which is the principal mart for this article, little is collected otherwise than from mines (tambang) by people whose profession it is to work them, and who are known by the appellation of orang gulla. The metal brought down for sale is for the most part of two sorts, distinguished by the terms amas supayang and amas sungei-abu, from the names of places where they are respectively procured. The former is what we usually call rock-gold, consisting of pieces of quartz more or less intermixed with veins of gold, generally of fine quality, running through it in all directions, and forming beautiful masses, which, being admired by Europeans, are sometimes sold by weight as if the whole were solid metal. The mines yielding this sort are commonly situated at the foot of a mountain, and the shafts are driven horizontally to the extent of from eight to twenty fathoms. The gold to which sungei-abu gives name is on the contrary found in the state of smooth solid lumps, in shape like gravel, and of various sizes, the largest lump that I have seen weighing nine ounces fifteen grains, and one in my possession (for which I am indebted to Mr. Charles Holloway) weighing eight grains less than nine ounces. This sort is also termed amas lichin or smooth gold, and appears to owe that quality to its having been exposed, in some prior state of the soil or conformation of the earth, to the action of running water, and deprived of its sharp and rough edges by attrition. This form of gravel is the most common in which gold is discovered. Gold-dust or amas urei is collected either in the channels of brooks running over ground rich in the metal, in standing pools of water occasioned by heavy rains, or in a number of holes dug in a situation to which a small rapid stream can be directed.

The tools employed in working the mines are an iron crow three feet in length, called tabah, a shovel called changkul, and a heavy iron mallet or hammer, the head of which is eighteen inches in length and as thick as a man's leg, with a handle in the middle. With this they beat the lumps of rock till they are reduced to powder, and the pounded mass is then put into a sledge or tray five or six feet long and one and a half broad, in the form of a boat, and thence named bidu. To this vessel a rope of iju is attached, by which they draw it when loaded out of the horizontal mine to the nearest place where they can meet with a supply of water, which alone is employed to separate the gold from the pulverized quartz.

In the perpendicular mines the smooth or gravel-gold is often found near the surface, but in small quantities, improving as the workmen advance, and again often vanishing suddenly. This they say is most likely to be the case when after pursuing a poor vein they suddenly come to large lumps. When they have dug to the depth of four, six, or sometimes eight fathoms (which they do at a venture, the surface not affording any indications on which they can depend), they work horizontally, supporting the shaft with timbers; but to persons acquainted with the berg-werken of Germany or Hungary, these pits would hardly appear to merit the appellation of mines.* In Siberia however, as in Sumatra, the hills yield their gold by slightly working them. Sand is commonly met with at the depth of three or four fathoms, and beneath this a stratum of napal or steatite, which is considered as a sign that the metal is near; but the least fallible mark is a red stone, called batu kawi, lying in detached pieces. It is mostly found in red and white clay, and often adhering to small stones, as well as in homogeneous lumps. The gold is separated from the clay by means of water poured on a hollow board, in the management of which the persons employed are remarkably expert.

(*Footnote. It has been observed to me that it is not so much the want of windlasses or machines (substitutes for which they are ready enough at contriving) that prevents excavation to a great depth as the apprehension of earthquakes, the effect of which has frequently been to overwhelm them before they could escape even from their shallow mines.)

In these perpendicular mines the water is drawn off by hand in pails or buckets. In the horizontal they make two shafts or entries in a direction parallel to each other, as far as they mean to extend the work, and there connect them by a cross trench. One of these, by a difference in their respective levels, serves as a drain to carry off the water, whilst the other is kept dry. They work in parties of from four or five to forty or fifty in number; the proprietor of the ground receiving one half of the produce and the undertakers the other; and it does not appear that the prince receives any established royalty. The hill people affect a kind of independence or equality which they express by the term of sama rata.

It may well be imagined that mines of this description are very numerous, and in the common estimation of the natives they amount to no fewer than twelve hundred in the dominions of Menangkabau. A considerable proportion of their produce (perhaps one half) never comes into the hands of Europeans but is conveyed to the eastern side of the island, and yet I have been assured on good authority that from ten to twelve thousand ounces have annually been received, on public and private account, at Padang alone; at Nalabu about two thousand, Natal eight hundred, and Moco-moco six hundred. The quality of the gold collected in the Padang districts is inferior to that purchased at Natal and Moco-moco, in consequence of the practice of blending together the unequal produce of such a variety of mines which in other parts it is customary to keep distinct. The gold from the former is of the fineness of from nineteen to twenty-one, and from the latter places is generally of from twenty-two to twenty-three carats. The finest that has passed through my hands was twenty-three carats, one grain and a half, assayed at the Tower of London. Gold of an inferior touch, called amas muda from the paleness of its colour, is found in the same countries where the other is produced. I had some assayed which was two carats three grains worse than standard, and contained an alloy of silver, but not in a proportion to be affected by the acids. I have seen gold brought from Mampawah in Borneo which was in the state of a fine uniform powder, high-coloured, and its degree of fineness not exceeding fifteen or sixteen carats. The natives suppose these differences to proceed from an original essential inferiority of the metal, not possessing the art of separating it from the silver or copper. In this island it is never found in the state of ore, but is always completely metallic. A very little pale gold is now and then found in the Lampong country.

Of those who dig for it the most intelligent, distinguished by the name of sudagar or merchants, are intrusted by the rest with their collections, who carry the gold to the places of trade on the great eastern rivers, or to the settlements on the west coast, where they barter it for iron (of which large quantities are consumed in tools for working the mines), opium, and the fine piece-goods of Madras and Bengal with which they return heavily loaded to their country. In some parts of the journey they have the convenience of water-carriage on lakes and rivers; but in others they carry on their backs a weight of about eighty pounds through woods, over streams, and across mountains, in parties generally of one hundred or more, who have frequent occasion to defend their property against the spirit of plunder and extortion which prevails among the poorer nations through whose districts they are obliged to pass. Upon the proposal of striking out any new road the question always asked by these intermediate people is, apa ontong kami, what is to be our advantage?


Ketika dibawa ke pemukiman kami, ini awalnya dihargai delapan belas dolar Spanyol per ekor, atau sekitar tiga pound lima shilling per ons, namun pada masa berikutnya, harganya naik menjadi dua puluh satu dolar, atau tiga pound delapan belas shilling per ouns. Setelah pengeksporan ke Eropa yang menambah laba pada penjual asli, dan pihak lainnya yang terlibat sebagai perantara mengalami kemerosotan ketika keuntungan dan harga terkait lainnya merosot. A duty of five per cent which it had been customary to charge at the East India-house was, about twenty years ago, most liberally remitted by the Company upon a representation made by me to the Directors of the hardship sustained in this respect by its servants at Fort Marlborough, and the public benefit that would accrue from giving encouragement to the importation of bullion. The long continuance of war and peculiar risk of Indian navigation resulting from it may probably have operated to counteract these good effects.

It has generally been thought surprising that the European Companies who have so long had establishments in Sumatra should not have considered it an object to work these mines upon a regular system, with proper machinery, and under competent inspection; but the attempt has in fact been made, and experience and calculation may have taught them that it is not a scheme likely to be attended with success, owing among other causes to the dearness of labour, and the necessity it would occasion for keeping up a force in distant parts of the country for the protection of the persons engaged and the property collected. Europeans cannot be employed upon such work in that climate, and the natives are unfit for (nor would they submit to) the laborious exertion required to render the undertaking profitable. A detailed and in many respects interesting account of the working a gold mine at Sileda, with a plate representing a section of the mine, is given by Elias Hesse,* who in the year 1682 accompanied the Bergh-Hoofdman, Benj. Olitzsch, and a party of miners from Saxony, sent out by the Dutch East India Company for that purpose. The superintendent, with most of his people, lost their lives, and the undertaking failed. It is said at Padang that the metal proved to be uncommonly poor. Many years later trial was made of a vein running close to that settlement; but the returns not being adequate to the expense it was let to farm, and in a few years fell into such low repute as to be at length disposed of by public auction at a rent of two Spanish dollars.** The English company, also having intelligence of a mine said to be discovered near Fort Marlborough, gave orders for its being worked; but if it ever existed no trace now remains.

(*Footnote. Ost-Indische Reise-beschreibung oder Diarium. Leipzig 1690 octavo. See also J.W. Vogel's Ost-Indianische Reise-beschreibung. Altenburg 1704 octavo.)

(**Footnote. The following is an extract of a letter from Mr. James Moore, a servant of the Company, dated from Padang in 1778. "They have lately opened a vein of gold in the country inland of this place, from which the governor at one time received a hundred and fifty tials (two hundred ounces). He has procured a map to be made of a particular part of the gold country, which points out the different places where they work for it; and also the situation of twenty-one Malay forts, all inhabited and in repair. These districts are extremely populous compared to the more southern part of the island. They collect and export annually to Batavia about two thousand five hundred tials of gold from this place: the quantity never exceeds three thousand tials nor falls short of two thousand." This refers to the public export on the Company's account, which agrees with what is stated in the Batavian Transactions. "In een goed Jaar geeven de Tigablas cottas omtrent 3000 Thail, zynde 6 Thail een Mark, dus omtrent 500 Mark Goud, van 't gchalte van 19 tot 20 carat.")

Before the gold dust is weighed for sale, in order to cleanse it from all impurities and heterogeneous mixtures, whether natural or fraudulent, (such as filings of copper or of iron) a skilful person is employed who, by the sharpness of his eye and long practice, is able to effect this to a surprising degree of nicety. The dust is spread out on a kind of wooden platter, and the base particles (lanchong) are touched out from the mass and put aside one by one with an instrument, if such it may be termed, made of cotton cloth rolled up to a point. If the honesty of these gold­cleaners can be depended upon their dexterity is almost infallible; and as some check upon the former it is usual to pour the contents of each parcel when thus cleansed into a vessel of aqua-fortis, which puts their accuracy to the test. The parcels or bulses in which the gold is packed up are formed of the integument that covers the heart of the buffalo. This has the appearance of bladder, but is both tougher and more pliable. In those parts of the country where the traffic in the article is considerable it is generally employed as currency instead of coin; every man carries small scales about him, and purchases are made with it so low as to the weight of a grain or two of padi. Various seeds are used as gold weights, but more especially these two: the one called rakat or saga-timbangan (Glycine abrus L. or Abrus maculatus of the Batavian Transactions) being the well-known scarlet pea with a black spot, twenty-four of which constitute a mas, and sixteen mas a tail: the other called saga­puhn and kondori batang (Adenanthera pavonia, L.), a scarlet or rather coral bean, much larger than the former and without the black spot. It is the candarin-weight of the Chinese, of which a hundred make a tail, and equal, according to the tables published by Stevens, to 5.7984 gr. troy; but the average weight of those in my possession is 10.50 grains. The tail differs however in the northern and southern parts of the island, being at Natal twenty-four pennyweights nine grains, and at Padang, Bencoolen, and elsewhere, twenty-six pennyweights twelve grains. At Achin the bangkal of thirty pennyweights twenty-one grains, is the standard. Spanish dollars are everywhere current, and accounts are kept in dollars, sukus (imaginary quarter-dollars) and kepping or copper cash, of which four hundred go to the dollar. Beside these there are silver fanams, single, double, and treble (the latter called tali) coined at Madras, twenty-four fanams or eight talis being equal to the Spanish dollar, which is always valued in the English settlements at five shillings sterling. Silver rupees have occasionally been struck in Bengal for the use of the settlements on the coast of Sumatra, but not in sufficient quantities to become a general currency; and in the year 1786 the Company contracted with the late Mr. Boulton of Soho for a copper coinage, the proportions of which I was desired to adjust, as well as to furnish the inscriptions; and the same system, with many improvements suggested by Mr. Charles Wilkins, has since been extended to the three Presidencies of India. At Achin small thin gold and silver coins were formerly struck and still are current; but I have not seen any of the pieces that bore the appearance of modern coinage; nor am I aware that this right of sovereignty is exercised by any other power in the island.


Tin, called timar, is a very considerable article of trade, and many cargoes of it are yearly carried to China, where the consumption is chiefly for religious purposes. The mines are situated in the island of Bangka, lying near Palembang, and are said to have been accidentally discovered there in 1710, by the burning of a house. They are worked by a colony of Chinese (said in the Batavian Transactions to consist of twenty-five thousand persons) under the nominal direction of the king of Palembang, but for the account and benefit of the Dutch Company, which has endeavoured to monopolize the trade, and actually obtained two millions of pounds yearly; but the enterprising spirit of private merchants, chiefly English and American, finds means to elude the vigilance of its cruisers, and the commerce is largely participated by them. It is exported for the most part in small pieces or cakes called tampang, and sometimes in slabs. M. Sonnerat reports that this tin (named calin by the French writers), was analysed by M. Daubenton, who found it to be the same metal as that produced in England; but it sells something higher than our grain-tin. In different parts of Sumatra, there are indications of tin-earth, or rather sand, and it is worked at the mountain of Sungei-pagu, but not to any great extent. Of this sand, at Bangka, a pikul, or 133 pounds is said to yield about 75 pounds of the metal.


A rich mine of copper is worked at Mukki near Labuan-haji, by the Achinese. The ore produces half its original weight in pure metal, and is sold at the rate of twenty dollars the pikul. A lump which I deposited in the Museum of the East India Company is pronounced to be native copper. The Malays are fond of mixing this metal with gold in equal quantities, and using the composition, which they name swasa, in the manufacture of buttons, betel-boxes, and heads of krises. I have never heard silver spoken of as a production of this part of the East.


Iron ore is dug at a place named Turawang, in the eastern part of Menangkabau, and there smelted, but not, I apprehend, in large quantities, the consumption of the natives being amply supplied with English and Swedish bar-iron, which they are in the practice of purchasing by measure instead of weight.


Sulfur (balerang), seperti yang telah disebutkan, biasanya diambil dari sejumlah gunung berapi, dan khususnya dari tempat yang sangat besar yang terletak di sekitaran pedalaman perjalanan sehari dari Priaman. Arsenik Kuninh (barangan) juga merupakan barang dagang.


In the country of Kattaun, near the head of Urei River, there are extensive caves (goha) from the soil of which saltpetre (mesiyu mantah) is extracted. M. Whalfeldt, who was employed as a surveyor, visited them in March 1773. Into one he advanced seven hundred and forty­three feet, when his lights were extinguished by the damp vapour. Into a second he penetrated six hundred feet, when, after getting through a confined passage about three feet wide and five in height, an opening in the rock led to a spacious place forty feet high. The same caves were visited by Mr. Christopher Terry and Mr. Charles Miller. They are the habitation of innumerable birds, which are perceived to abound the more the farther you proceed. Their nests are formed about the upper parts of the cave, and it is thought to be their dung simply that forms the soil (in many places from four to six feet deep, and from fifteen to twenty broad) which affords the nitre. A cubic foot of this earth, measuring seven gallons, produced on boiling seven pounds fourteen ounces of saltpetre, and a second experiment gave a ninth part more. This I afterwards saw refined to a high degree of purity; but I conceive that its value would not repay the expense of the process.


Sarang burung pangan, yang banyak disajikan sebagai makanan mewah di meja, khususnya di kalangan orang-orang Tionghoa, ditemukan di gua-gua serupa di bagian-bagian berbeda dari pulau tersebut, namun utamanya di dekat pantai, dan dalam jumlah terbesar di ujung selatannya. Dari jarak empat mil dari sungai Kroi, terdapat salah satunya yang ukurannya memadai. Burung-burung tersebut disebut layang-layang, dan mirip dengan burung pipit pada umumnya, atau mungkin lebih mirip martin. Aku memiliki kesempatan memberikan beberapa sarang tersebut ke British Museum dengan telur-telur di dalamnya. Sarang-sarang tersebut terdiri dari warna putih dan hitam, yang hitam lebih langka dan mahal, hanya ditemukan dalam jumlah satu banding dua puluh lima. Jenis yang putih dijual ke Tiongkok dengan harga seribu sampai lima belas ratus dolar per pikul (menurut Badan Transaksi Batavia karena nyaris seharga perak), yang hitam biasanya dijual ke Batavia dengan harga sekitar dua puluh sampai tiga puluh dolar dengan berat yang sama, ketika aku memahami bahwa barang tersebut biasanya diolah menjadi sejenis lem. Perbedaan antara dua jenis tersebut oleh beberapa orang bergantung pada percampuran bulu burung dengan bahan yang dipakai untuk membuat sarang; dan ini merupakan kesimpulan mereka dari uji coba pengamatan sarang-sarang hitam selama jangka pendek di air panas, ketika sarang tersebut dikatakan menjadi putih pada tahap tertentu. Di kalangan penduduk asli, aku mendengar bahwa beberapa orang menganggap bahwa itu adalah hasil kerja dari jenis burung yang berbeda. Ini juga membuatku menyimpulkan bahwa sarang putih mungkin merupakan sarang musim ketika mereka diambil, dan sarang hitam semacam itu dipakai selama beberapa tahun secara berturut-turut. Opini ini nampak masuk akan, dalam penyelidikanku pada titik tersebut, dan memahami apa yang nampak banyak keterkaitannya. Ketika para penduduk asli bersiap untuk mengambil sarang-sarang tersebut, mereka memasuki gua dengan obor, dan, membentuk tangga bambu berdasarkan pada bentuk lazim, mereka meniakinnya dan menurunkan sarang-sarang tersebut, yang dikumpulkan dalam ukuran yang beragam, dari sisi ke sisi dan atas batu. Aku diberitahu bahwa biasanya gua tersebut berisi sejumlah besar sarang putih yang mereka temukan, dan bahwa pada pengalaman tersebut, mereka seringkali melakukan praktek pukul jatuh dan menghancurkan sarang-sarang lama dalam jumlah besar ketimbang mereka berurusan dengan diri mereka untuk membawanya pergi, dalam rangka agar mereka menemukan sarang-sarang putih pada musim berikutnya di tempat tersebut. Butung-butung tersebut, aku anggap, nampaknya, pada musim pembuatan, dalam jumlah besar menghampiri pantai, mengumpulkan rajutan memakai paruh mereka yang dijatuhkan dengan cara selancar, yang nampak sedikit keraguan dari pembuatan sarang gelatin mereka, stelah pembuatan tersebut berlanjut, mungkin, beberapa persiapan dari pencampuran dengan liur mereka atau kotoran lainnya pada paruh atau sayap, dan bahwa ini memberikan opisi penduduk asli yang nampak dari burung yang umumnya disebut layang-buhi, pipit rajutw. Namun, Linnaeus menyangkalnya, dan dengan banyak penyangkalan, bahwa ini merupakan bahan hewan yang sering ditemukan pada pantai yang para nelayan sebut buihan atau agar-agar, dan bukannya rajutan laut, bahwa burung-burung tersebut mengumpulkannya; dan bahwa ini sebenarnya menyebutkan bahwa, dalam deskripsi menganai sarang-sarang tersebut buatan M. Hooyman, dicetak dalam Volume 3 dari Transaksi Batavia, ia memberikan wacana bahwa bahannya tak dilakukan dengan rajutan laut namun digabungkan dari makanan burung. Mr. John Crisp memberitahu saya bahwa ia telah melihat sarang pipit umum di Padang, dibangun di bawah atap rumah, yang terbuat dari lumpur dan bahan yang layak untuk sarang pangan. Burung-burung muda mereka sendiri dikatakan menjadi makanan yang sangat lezat, dan tak kalah kaya rasa dengan beccafico.


Swala, tripan, atau sea-slug (holothurion), nampaknya adalah barang dagang untuk Batavia dan Tiongkok, diperjualkan, seperti halnya sarang burung atau vermicelli, untuk tambahan sup atau kuah, oleh orang-orang kaya. Barang tersebut dijual di Batavia seharga empat puluh lima dolar per pikul, menurut tingkat keputihan dan kualitas lainnya.


Malam lebah adalah komoditas berpengaruh besar di seluruh kepulauan timur, dari sana , barang tersebut diekspor dalam kue oblong besar ke Tiongkok, Bengal, dan belahan benua lainnya. Tidak ada luka yang dialami dari lebah, yang ditinggalkan untuk dimukimkan dimana mereka didaftarkan (umumnya pada pepohonan) dan tak pernah dikumpulkan. Madu mereka bermutu sangat rendah ketimbang madu Eropa, karena pengaruh dari alam vegetasi.

GETAH KARET[sunting]

Getah karet, yang disebut sebagai ampalu atau ambalu oleh penduduk asli, meskipun ditemukan pada pepohonan dan paling sering ditemukan pada dahan-dahannya, diketahui merupakan hasil kerja serangga, seperti malam yang berasal dari lebah. Barang tersebut diolah dalam jumlah kecil dari pedalaman desa Bencoolen; namun di Padang merupakan barang dagang menonjol. Namun, pasar-pasar asli mensuplai dari daerah-daerah Siam dan Camboja. Barang tersebut sangat dihargai di Sumatra karena merupakan bagian dari hewan, ditemukan di nidus serangga, yang tahan air, dan menyediakan pewarga ungu murni, yang dipakai untuk mewarnai sutra mereka dan jaringan pengolahan domestik lainnya. Seperti cochineal, barang tersebut kemungkinan, dengan tambahan tinta, menjadi barang yang bagus. Aku menemukan dalam kamus Bisayan bahwa bahan tersebut dipakai oleh penduduk Kepulauan Filipina untuk mewarnai gigi mereka menjadi merah. Untuk catatan serangga karet lihat di Philosophical Transactions Volume 71 halaman 374 sebuah makalah karya Mr. James Kerr.


Hutan-hutan dihuni oleh para gajah, gading seringkali nampak melimbah, dan dibawa ke pasar Tiongkok dan Eropa. Hewan itu sendiri dulunya menjadi obyek lalu lintas dari Achin sampai pesisir Coromandel, atau daerah kling, dan kapal-kapal yang dibangun untuk transportasi mereka; namun menurutn, atau mungkin bergenti serentak, dari pertukaran ketika perang terjadi, seperti halnya taktik Eropa yang ditiru oleh para pangeran India.

TELUR IKAN[sunting]

Telur-telur besar dari spesies ikan (dikatakan seperti shad, namun lebih mungkin jenis mullet) diambil dalam jumlah besar di mulut Sungai Siak, digarami dan diekspor dari situ ke seluruh wilayah Malaya, dimana bahan tersebut disantap dengan nasi tanak, dan nampak lezat. Ini adalah botarga dari orang-orang Italia, dan disini disebut trobo dan telur-trobo.


Barang-barang perdagangan impor paling umum adalah sebagai berikut:

Dari pantai Coromandel berbagai barang kapas, seperti baju panjang, biru putih, chintz, dan sarung tangan berwarna, yang diolah di Pulicat sangat bernilai; dan garam.

Dari Muslim Bengal, bergaris dan polos, dan beberapa jenis barang kapas lainnya, seperti cossae, baftae, hummum, dll, taffeta dan beberapa sutra lainnya; dan candu dalam jumlah yang banyak.

Dari pantai Malabar, berbagai barang kapas, kebanyakan kain mentah koarse.

Dari Tiongkok, porselen koarse, kuali atau panci besi, dalam beragam ukuran, tembakau yang bernilai sangat sempurna, lapis emas, kipas, dan sejumlah barang kecil.

Dari Sulawesi (dikenal disini dengan berbagai nama provinsi utamanya, Mangkasar, Bugis, dan Mandar), Jawa, Balli, Ceram, dan kepulauan timur lainnya, busana kapas bergaris kasar yang disebut kain-sarong, atau busana bugis yang lebih vulgar, menjadikannya busanatubuh universal dari penduduk asli; keris dan senjata lain, bungkus keris bersutra, tudung atau topi, sejumlah kecil hiasan, umumnya bras, yang disebut rantaka, rempah-rempah, dan juga garam dalam jumlah besar, dan terkadang beras, umumnya dari Balli.

Dari Eropa perak, besi, baja, timah, alat makan, berbagai barang perangkat keras, jaring brass, dan kain papan, khususnya scarlet.

Ini bukan rencanaku untuk memperluas subyek ini dengan memasukan penjelasan pasar, atau harga beberapa barang, yang sangat berfluktuasi, sesuai dengan suplai kurang-lebih. Kebanyakan jenis barang di atas disebutkan di bagian pekerjaan lainnya, karena barang-barang tersebut berhubungan dengan jumlah penduduk asli yang menjualnya.