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IKHTISAR
SEJARAH

Menjadi Sejarah Datar dari Kehidupan dan Umat Manusia

OLEH

H. G. WELLS

DITULIS DENGAN NASEHAT DAN BANTUAN PENYUNTINGAN DARI

MR. ERNEST BARKER,
SIR H. H. JOHNSTON, SIR E. RAY LANKESTER
DAN PROFESOR GILBERT MURRAY

DAN DIILUSTRASIKAN OLEH

J. F. HORRABIN

Volume I

New York

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1920

Seluruh hak cipta dilindungi

Hak cipta, 1920,

Oleh THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.


Hak cipta, 1920,

Oleh H. G. WELLS.


Dirancang dan ditulis. Diterbitkan pada November 1920.

Norwood Press
J. S. Cushing Co. — Berwick & Smith Co.
Norwood, Mass., AS

SKEMA ISI

  1. BUKU I
  2. PEMBUATAN DUNIA KITA
  3. HALAMAN
  4. Bab I. Bumi dalam Angkasa dan Waktu
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    3
  5. Bab II. Catatan Bebatuan
  6. § 1.
    Makhluk-makhluk hidup pertama
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    7
  7. § 2.
    Berapa usia bumi?
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    13
  8. Bab III. Seleksi Alam dan Perubahan Spesies
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    16
  9. Bab IV. Invasi Tanah Kering oleh Kehidupan
  10. § 1.
    Kehidupan dan air
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    23
  11. § 2.
    Hewan-hewan terawal
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    25
  12. Bab V. Perubahan dalam Iklim Dunia
  13. § 1.
    Kenapa kehidupan harus berubah secara berkelanjutan
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    29
  14. § 2.
    Matahari sebuah bintang yang tegar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    34
  15. § 3.
    Perubahan dari dalam bumi
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    35
  16. § 4.
    Kehidupan menjadi perubahan kendali
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    36
  17. Bab VI. Zaman Reptil
  18. § 1.
    Zaman kehidupan dataran rendah
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    38
  19. § 2.
    Naga-naga terbang
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    43
  20. § 3.
    Unggas-unggas pertama
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    43
  21. § 4.
    Zaman pekerjaan keras dan kematian
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    44
  22. § 5.
    Kemunculan pertama rambut dan bulu
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    47
  23. Bab VII. Zaman Mamalia
  24. § 1.
    Zaman kehidupan baru
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    51
  25. § 2.
    Tradisi yang datang ke dunia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    52
  26. § 3.
    Zaman pertumbuhan utak
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    56
  27. § 4.
    Dunia berkembang keras lagi
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    57
  28. § 5.
    Kronologi Zaman Es
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    59
  29. BUKU II
  30. PEMBUATAN MANUSIA
  31. Bab VIII. Leluhur Manusia
  32. § 1.
    Manusia diturunkan dari kera berjalan
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    62
  33. § 2.
    Jejak pertama makhluk mirip manusia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    68
  34. § 3.
    Kelompok manusia Heidelberg
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    69
  35. § 4.
    Kelompok manusia Piltdown
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    70
  36. § 5.
    Teka-teki jasad Piltdown
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    72
  37. Bab IX. Manusia Neanderthal, sebuah Ras Punah. (Zaman Palæolitikum Awal)
  38. § 1.
    Dunia 50.000 tahun lalu
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    75
  39. § 2.
    Kehidupan sehari-hari manusia pertama
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    79
  40. § 3.
    Manusia Palæolitikum akhir
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  41. Bab X. Manusia Palæolitikum Pasca-Glasial Akhir, Manusia Pertama yang Sebenarnya. (Zaman Palæolitikum Akhir)
  42. § 1.
    Kemunculan manusia seperti kita sendiri
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    86
  43. § 2.
    Pembagian Palæolitikum Akhir
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95
  44. § 3.
    Manusia terawal yang sebenarnya adalah orang-orang liar yang pandai
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    98
  45. § 4.
    Para pemburu digantikan oleh penggembala
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    101
  46. § 5.
    Tak ada kelompok manusia di Amerika
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    102
  47. Bab XI. Manusia Neolitikum di Eropa
  48. § 1.
    Zaman penanaman dimulai
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    104
  49. § 2.
    Dimana kebudayaan Neolitikum timbul?
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    108
  50. § 3.
    Kehidupan Neolitikum sehari-hari
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    109
  51. § 4.
    Bagaimana penyemaian dimulai?
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    116
  52. § 5.
    Perdagangan primitif
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    118
  53. § 6.
    Banjir Lembah Laut Tengah
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    118
  54. Bab XII. Pemikiran Awal
  55. § 1.
    Filsafat primitif
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    122
  56. § 2.
    Manusia Tua yang beragama
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    125
  57. § 3.
    Kekhawatiran dan harapan akan agama
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    126
  58. § 4.
    Bintang-bintang dan musim-musim
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    127
  59. § 5.
    Pengisahan cerita dan pembuatan mitos
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    129
  60. § 6.
    Cikal bakal kompleks agama
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    130
  61. Bab XIII. Ras-tas umat manusia
  62. § 1.
    Apakah umat manusia masih membeda-bedakan?
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    136
  63. § 2.
    Ras-ras utama umat manusia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    140
  64. § 3.
    Apakah ada ras Alpen?
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    142
  65. § 4.
    Budaya Heliolitikum suku bangsa Brunet
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    146
  66. § 5.
    Bagaimana ras yang ada dapat berkaitan satu sama lain
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    148
  67. Bab XIV. Rumpun Bahasa Umat Manusia
  68. § 1.
    Tak ada satu bahasa primitif
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    150
  69. § 2.
    Rumpun bahasa Arya
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    151
  70. § 3.
    Rumpun bahasa Semit
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    153
  71. § 4.
    Rumpun bahasa Hamit
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    154
  72. § 5.
    Rumpun bahasa Ural-Alta
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    156
  73. § 6.
    Rumpun bahasa Tionghoa
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    157
  74. § 7.
    Rumpun bahasa lain
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    157
  75. § 8.
    Rumpun bahasa yang hilang dan terlampaui
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    161
  76. § 9.
    Bagaimana rumpun bahasa dapat berkaitan
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    163
  77. BUKU III
  78. PERMULAAN SEJARAH
  79. Bab XV. Suku Bangsa Penutur Bahasa Arya pada Zaman Prasejarah
  80. § 1.
    Penyebaran para penutur bahasa Arya
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    167
  81. § 2.
    Kehidupan Arya primitif
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    169
  82. § 3.
    Kehidupan keseharian Arya awal
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    176
  83. Bab XVI. Peradaban Pertama
  84. § 1.
    Kota-kota awal dan nomaden-nomaden awal
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    183
  85. § 2a.
    Teka-teki Sumeria
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    188
  86. § 2b.
    Kekaisaran Sargon Pertama
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    191
  87. § 2c.
    Kekaisaran Hammurabi
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    191
  88. § 2d.
    Bangsa Asiria dan kekaisaran mereka
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    192
  89. § 2e.
    Kekaisaran Kaldea
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    194
  90. § 3.
    Sejarah awal Mesir
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    195
  91. § 4.
    Peradaban awal India
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    201
  92. § 5.
    Sejarah awal Tiongkok
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    201
  93. § 6.
    Kala peradaban-peradaban berkembang
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    206
  94. Bab XVII. Suku Bangsa Pelaut dan Suku Bangsa Pedagang
  95. § 1.
    Kapal-kapal dan pelaut-pelaut terawal
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    209
  96. § 2.
    Kota-kota Ægea prasejarah
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    213
  97. § 3.
    Perjalanan penjelajahan pertama
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    217
  98. § 4.
    Para pedagang awal
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    218
  99. § 5.
    Para penjelajah awal
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    220
  100. Bab XVIII. Penulisan
  101. § 1.
    Penulisan gambar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    223
  102. § 2.
    Penulisan silabel
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    227
  103. § 3.
    Penulisan abjad
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    228
  104. § 4.
    The place of writing in human life
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    229
  105. Bab XIX. Dewa-dewi dan Bintang-bintang, Imam-imam dan Raja-raja
  106. § 1.
    Agama nomadik dan menetap
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    232
  107. § 2.
    Imam yang muncul dalam sejarah
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    234
  108. § 3.
    Imam-imam dan bintang-bintang
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    238
  109. § 4.
    Imam-imam dan permulaan pemahaman
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    240
  110. § 5.
    Raja melawan imam-imam
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    241
    1. § 6.
      Bagaimana Bel-Marduk berjuang melawan raja-raja
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      245
    2. § 7.
      dewa-raja Mesir
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      248
    3. § 8.
      Shi Hwang-ti menghancurkan kitab-kitab
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      252
    4. Bab XX. Hamba tani, Budak, Kelas Sosia, dan Orang-orang Merdeka
    5. § 1.
      Sosok umum pada zaman kuno
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      254
    6. § 2.
      Budak-budak terawal
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      256
    7. § 3.
      Orang-orang "independen" pertama
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      259
    8. § 4.
      Kelas-kelas sosial pada tiga ribu tahum lampau
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      262
    9. § 5.
      Kelas-kelas beralih ke kasta-kasta
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      266
    10. § 6.
      Kasta di India
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      268
    11. § 7.
      Sistem Mandarin
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      270
    12. § 8.
      Penjelasan lima ribu tahun
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      272
    13. BUKU IV
    14. YUDEA, YUNANI, DAN INDIA
    15. Bab XXI. Naskah-naskah dan Nabi-nabi Ibrani
    16. § 1.
      Tempat bangsa Israel dalam sejarah
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      277
    17. § 2.
      Saul, Daud, dan Salomo
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      286
    18. § 3.
      Yahudi bangsa belasteran
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      292
    19. § 4.
      Pengaruh nabi-nabi Ibrani
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      294
    20. Bab XXII. Bangsa Yunani dan bangsa Persia
    21. § 1.
      Suku bangsa Yunani
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      298
    22. § 2.
      Unsur-unsur khas peradaban Yunani
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      304
    23. § 3.
      Monarki, aristokrasi, dan demokrasi di Yunani
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      307
    24. § 4.
      Kerajaan Lidia
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      315
    25. § 5.
      Kebangkitan bangsa Persia di Timur
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      316
    26. § 6.
      Kisah Crœsus
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      320
    27. § 7.
      Darius menginvasi Rusia
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      326
    28. § 8.
      Pertempuran Marathon
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      332
    29. § 9.
      Thermopylæ dan Salamis
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      334
    30. § 10.
      Platæa dan Mycale
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      340
    31. Bab XXIII. Pemikiran dan Sastra Yunani
    32. § 1.
      Warga Athena dari Perikles
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      343
    33. § 2.
      Sokrates
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      350
    34. § 3.
      Apa yang menjadi kualitas bangsa Athena umum?
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      352
    35. § 4.
      Tragedi dan komedi Yunani
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      354
    36. § 5.
      Plato dan Akademi
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      355
    37. § 6.
      Aristoteles dan Lyceum
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      357
    38. § 7.
      Filsafat menjadi tak duniawi
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      359
    39. § 8.
      Kualitas dan batasan pemikiran Yunani
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      360
    1. Bab XXIV. Sepak terjang Aleksander Agung
    2. § 1.
      Filipos dari Makedonia
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      367
    3. § 2.
      Pembunuhan Raja Filipos
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      373
    4. § 3.
      Penaklukan awal Aleksander
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      377
    5. § 4.
      Pengembaraan Alexander
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      385
    6. § 5.
      Apakah Aleksander benar-benar agung?
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      389
    7. § 6.
      Para penerus Aleksander
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      395
    8. § 7.
      Pergamum sang pengungsi budaya
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      396
    9. § 8.
      Alexander sebagai landasan persatuan dunia
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      397
    10. Bab XXV. Ilmu dan Agama di Aleksandria
    11. § 1.
      Ilmu Aleksandria
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      401
    12. § 2.
      Filsafat Aleksandria
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      410
    13. § 3.
      Aleksandria sebagai pabrik agama
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      410
    14. Bab XXVI. Kebangkitan dan Penyebaran Agama Buddha
    15. § 1.
      Kisah Gautama
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      415
    16. § 2.
      Ajaran dan legenda dalam konflik
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      421
    17. § 3.
      Kitab Buddha Gautama
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      422
    18. § 4.
      Agama Buddha dan Asoka
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      426
    19. § 5.
      Dua guru Tiongkok agung
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      433
    20. § 6.
      Penyelewengan agama Buddha
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      438
    21. § 7.
      Persebaran agama Buddha saat ini
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      440
    22. BUKU V
    23. KEBANGKITAN DAN KERUNTUHAN KEKAISARAN ROMAWI
    24. Bab XXVII. Dua Republik Barat
    25. § 1.
      Permulaan Latin
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      445
    26. § 2.
      Jenis negara baru
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      454
    27. § 3.
      Republik orang kaya Cartagena
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      466
    28. § 4.
      Perang Punik Pertama
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      467
    29. § 5.
      Kato yang Tua dan jiwa Cato
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      471
    30. § 6.
      Perang Punik Kedua
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      475
    31. § 7.
      Perang Punik Ketiga
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      480
    32. § 8.
      Bagaimana Perang Punik membayangi kebebasan Romawi
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      485
    33. § 9.
      Perbandingan republik Romawi dengan negara modern
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      486
    34. Bab XXVIII. Dari Tiberius Gracchus sampai Kaisar Dewa di Roma
    35. § 1.
      Ilmu yang dilontarkan sosok umum
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      493
    36. § 2.
      Keuangan di negara Romawi
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      496
    37. § 3.
      Tahun-tahun terakhir politik republik
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      499
    38. § 4.
      Era panglima petualang
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      505
  111. § 5.
    Caius Julius Cæsar dan kematiannya
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    509
  112. § 6.
    Akhir republik
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    513
  113. § 7.
    Kenapa republik Romawi gagal
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    516
  114. Bab XXIX. Para Cæsar antara Laut dan Dataran Besar Dunia Lama
  115. § §1.
    Katalog pendek para kaisar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    522
  116. § 2.
    Peradaban Romawi pada puncaknya
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    529
  117. § 3.
    Batasan pemikiran Romawi
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    539
  118. § 4.
    Penyetiran dataran besar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    541
  119. § 5.
    Kemunculan Kekaisaran Barat (Romawi yang sebenarnya)
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    552
  120. § 6.
    Kekaisaran Timur (kebangkitan Yunani)
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    560
  121. BUKU VI
  122. KRISTEN DAN ISLAM
  123. Bab XXX. Permulaan, Kebangkitan, dan Perpecahan Kristen
  124. § 1.
    Yudea pada zaman Kristen
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    569
  125. § 2.
    Ajaran-ajaran Yesus dari Nazareth
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    573
  126. § 3.
    Agama-agama universal
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    582
  127. § 4.
    Penyaliban Yesus dari Nazareth
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    584
  128. § 5.
    Doktrin-doktrin yang ditambahkan pada ajaran-ajaran Yesus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    586
  129. § 6.
    Perjuangan dan penindasan Kristen
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    594
  130. § 7.
    Konstantinus Agung
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    598
  131. § 8.
    Pendirian Kristen resmi
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    601
  132. § 9.
    Peta Eropa, 500 Masehi
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    605
  133. § 10.
    Penyelamatan pemahaman oleh Kristen
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    609
  134. Bab XXXI. Tujuh Abad di Asia (circa 50 SM sampai 650 Masehi)
  135. § 1.
    Yustinianus Agung
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    614
  136. § 2.
    Kekaisaran Sasaniyah di Persia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    616
  137. § 3.
    Pendudukan Siria di bawah Sasaniyah
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    619
  138. § 4.
    Pesan pertama dari Islam
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    623
  139. § 5.
    Zoroaster dan Mani
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    624
  140. § 6.
    Suku bangsa Hun di Asia Tengah dan India
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    627
  141. § 7.
    Zaman agung Tiongkok
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    630
  142. § 8.
    Pemahaman intelektual Tiongkok
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    635
  143. § 9.
    Penjelajahan Yuan Chwang
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    642

SKEMA ISI

  1. BUKU VI (Lanjutan)
  2. HALAMAN
  3. Bab XXXII. Muhammad dan Islam Arab
  4. § 1.
    Arabia sebelum Muhammad
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    1
  5. § 2.
    Kehidupan Muhammad ke Hegira
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    4
  6. § 3.
    Muhammad menjadi nabi petarung
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    8
  7. § 4.
    Ajaran-ajaran Islam
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    14
  8. § 5.
    Khalifah Abu Bakar dan Omar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    16
  9. § 6.
    Masa kejayaan Umayyah
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    22
  10. § 7.
    Persebaran Islam di bawah Abbasiyah
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    31
  11. § 8.
    Kehidupan intelektual Islam Arab
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    34
  12. Bab XXXIII. Dunia Kristen dan Perang Salib
  13. § 1.
    Dunia Barat pada titik terrendahnya
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    40
  14. § 2.
    Sistem feodal
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    42
  15. § 3.
    kerajaan Franka dari bangsa Merovingia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    46
  16. § 4.
    Penyebaran agama Kristen pada bangsa barbar barat
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    48
  17. § 5.
    Charlemagne menjadi kaisar Barat
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    54
  18. § 6.
    Kepribadian Charlemagne
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    59
  19. § 7.
    Prancis dan Jerman menjadi terpisah
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    61
  20. § 8.
    Bangsa-bangsa Norman, Saracen, Hungaria, dan Turki Seljuk
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    64
  21. § 9.
    Bagaimana Konstantinopel dihadapkan ke Roma
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    72
  22. § 10.
    Perang Salib
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  23. § 11.
    Perang Salib, sebuah ujian Kekristenan
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  24. § 12.
    Kaisar Frederick II
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    86
  25. § 13.
    Pembelotan dan pembatasan kepausan
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    90
  26. § 14.
    Daftar Paus utama
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    96
  27. BUKU VII
  28. KEKAISARAN MONGOL RAYA DARI WILAYAH DARAT
    DAN KEKAISARAN-KEKAISARAN BARU DARI WILAYAH LAUT
  29. Bab XXXIV. Kekaisaran Besar Jengis Khan dan Para Penerusnya
  30. § 1.
    Asia pada akhir abad kedua belas
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    105
  31. § 2.
    Kebangkitan dan kemenangan bangsa Mongol
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    108
  32. § 3.
    Perjalanan Marco Polo
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    114
  33. § 4.
    Turki Utsmaniyah, Khalifah Turki, dan Konstantinopel
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    120
  34. § 5.
    Kenapa Bangsa Mongol tak terkristenkan
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    126
  35. § 5a.
    Kublai Khan mendirikan dinasti Yuan
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    127
  36. § 5b.
    Bangsa Mongol kembali ke persukuan
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    128
  37. § 5c.
    Kekaisaran Kipchak dan Tsar Muscovy
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    128
  38. § 5d.
    Timurlane
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    130
  39. § 5e.
    Kekaisaran Mongol di India
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    133
  40. § 5f.
    Bangsa Mongol dan bangsa Gipsi
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    137
  41. Bab XXXV. Pemulihan Peradaban Barat
  42. § 1.
    Kristen dan pendidikan populer
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    139
  43. § 2.
    Eropa mulai memikirkan dirinya sendiri
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    148
  44. § 3.
    Wabah Besar dan permulaan komunisme
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    153
  45. § 4.
    Bagaimana kertas membebaskan pemikiran manusia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    158
  46. § 5.
    Protestanisme pangeran dan Protestanisme bangsa
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    160
  47. § 6.
    Kebangkitan kembali ilmu pengetahuan
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    167
  48. § 7.
    Pertumbuhan kota-kota Eropa baru
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    177
  49. § 8.
    Amerika muncul dalam sejarah
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    184
  50. § 9.
    Apa pemikiran Machiavelli terhadap dunia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    194
  51. § 10.
    Republik Swiss
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    198
  52. § 11a.
    Kehidupan Kaisar Charles V
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    199
  53. § 11b.
    Protestan jika pangeran mengkehendakinya
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    210
  54. § 11c.
    Intelektual di bawah naungan
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    210
  55. BUKU VIII
  56. THE AGE OF THE GREAT POWERS
  57. Bab XXXVI. Pangeran, Parlemen, dan Kekuasaan
  58. § 1.
    Para pangeran dan kebijakan asing
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    213
  59. § 2.
    Republik Inggris
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    218
  60. § 3.
    Republik Belanda
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    228
  61. § 4.
    Perpecahan dan ketegangan Jerman
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    232
  62. § 5.
    Perebakan Monarki Besar di Eropa
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    236
  63. § 6.
    Pertumbuhan gagasan Kekuatan Besar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    243
  64. § 7.
    Republik mahkota Polandia dan nasibnya
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    248
  65. § 8.
    Perebutan pertama untuk kekaisaran seberang laut
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    251
  66. § 9.
    Inggris menguasai India
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    254
  67. § 10.
    Pergerakan Rusia ke Pasifik
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    259
  68. § 11.
    Apa yang dipikirkan oleh Gibbon terhadap dunia pada 1780
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    262
  69. § 12.
    Gencatan senjata sosial yang berniat untuk diakhiri
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    269
  70. Bab XXXVII. Republik Demokratik Baru Amerika dan Prancis
  71. § 1.
    Ketidaksesuaian sistem Kekuatan Besar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    278
  72. § 2.
    Tiga belas koloni menjelang pemberontakan mereka
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    280
  73. § 3.
    Perang saudara terjadi pada koloni-koloni
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    286
  74. § 4.
    Perang Kemerdekaan
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    291
  75. § 5.
    Konstitusi Amerika Serikat
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    294
  76. § 6.
    Unsur-unsur primitif konstitusi Amerika Serikat
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    301
  77. § 7.
    Gagasan revolusioner di Prancis
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    307
  78. § 8.
    Revolusi tahun 1789
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    311
  79. § 9.
    "Republik mahkota" prancis '89–'91
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    313
  80. § 10.
    Revolusi Jacobin
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    321
  81. § 11.
    Republik Jacobin, 1792–4
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    331
  82. § 12.
    Direktori
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    337
  83. § 13.
    Penundaan rekonstruksi dan kemunculan Sosialisme modern
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    339
  84. Bab XXXVIII. Sepak Terjang Napoleon Bonaparte
  85. § 1.
    Keluarga Buonaparte di Korsika
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    348
  86. § 2.
    Bonaparte sebagai panglima republik
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    349
  87. § 3.
    Konsul Pertama Napoleon, 1799–1804
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    354
  88. § 4.
    Kaisar Napoleon I, 1804–1814
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    360
  89. § 5.
    Seratus Hari
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    368
  90. § 6.
    pemujaan Napoleonik
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    373
  91. § 7.
    Peta Eropa pada 1815
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    377
  92. Bab XXXIX. Kenyataan dan Khayalan Abad Kesembilan Belas. Peningkatan Pengetahuan dan Pemikiran Jernih. Fase Nasionalis
  93. § 1.
    Revolusi mekanikal
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    384
  94. § 2.
    Hubungan mekanikal dengan revolusi industri
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    393
  95. § 3.
    Fermentasi gagasan, 1848
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    399
  96. § 4.
    Perkembangan gagasan Sosialisme
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    401
  97. § 5.
    Kemunculan Sosialisme sebagai skema umat manusia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    411
  98. § 6.
    Bagaimana Darwinisme berdampak pada gagasan keagamaan dan politik
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    416
  99. § 7.
    Mr. Gladstone dan gagasan Nasionalisme
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    426
  100. § 8.
    Eropa antara 1848 dan 1878
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    436
  101. § 9.
    Perebutan (kedua) untuk kekaisaran-kekaisaran seberang laut
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    449
  102. § 10.
    Landasan India di Asia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    461
  103. § 11.
    Sejarah Jepang
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    464
  104. § 12.
    Menjelang masa perluasan wilayah seberang laut
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    469
  105. § 13.
    Kekaisaran Inggris pada 1914
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    470
  106. Bab XL. Musibah Internasional tahun 1914 dan Menjelang Zaman Kekuatan Besar
  107. § 1.
    Perdamaian bersenajta sebelum Perang Besar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    475
  108. § 2.
    Kekaisaran Jerman
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    477
  109. § 3.
    Jiwa Imperialisme di Inggris dan Irlandia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    486
  110. § 4.
    Imperialisme di Prancis, Italia dan Balkan
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    499
  111. § 5.
    Rusia masih menjadi Monarki Besar pada 1914
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    502
  112. § 6.
    Amerika Serikat dan gagasan Kekaisaran
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    503
  113. § 7.
    Sebab langsung Perang Besar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    508
  114. § 8.
    Penjelasan Perang Besar sampai 1917
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    513
  115. § 9.
    Perang Besar dari keruntuhan Rusia sampai gencatan senjata
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    524
  116. § 10.
    Ketegangan politik, ekonomi, dan sosial yang disebabkan oleh Perang Besar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    532
  117. § 11.
    Presiden Wilson dan masalah-masalah Versailles
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    543
  118. § 12.
    Penjelasan Perjanjian pertama Liga Bangsa-Bangsa
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    558
  119. § 13.
    Penjelasan umum perjanjian tahun 1919 dan 1920
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    562
  120. § 14.
    Menghadapi "perang berikutnya"
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    567
  121. § 15.
    Keadaan pikiran manusia pada 1920
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    572
  122. BUKU IX
  123. TAHAP BERIKUTNYA DALAM SEJARAH
  124. Bab XLI. Masa Depan Manusia. Kemungkinan Perjuangan untuk Penyatuan Dunia dalam Satu Komunitas Pengetahuan dan Kehendak
  125. § 1.
    Kemungkinan penyatuan kehendak manusia dalam persoalan politik
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    579
  126. § 2.
    Bagaimana Pemerintahan Dunia Federal dapat didatangkan
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    583
  127. § 3.
    Beberapa sifat mutlak keadaan dunia modern
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    586
  128. § 4.
    Apakah dunia ini dapat seperti menyatukan manusia dalam perdamaian dan keadilan umum
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    588
  129. § 5.
    Tahap-tahap melampaui?
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    594
  130. Lima Catatan Waktu Persolaan Dunia dari 1000 SM sampai 1920 M
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    599
  131. Tabel Kronologi dari 800 SM sampai 1920 M
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    605
  132. Indeks
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    625

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